Knowledge is a tree, not a conclusion, and it has been a tree for all of time. Sometime, however, it verboten in the Bible with a didactic “tale” apparently by oligarchs telling the average religious person to view the tree of knowledge and its information as verboten. This is the beginning of the limits and control of information necessary for oligarchic dominance, as opposed to capital-type control which is more commodity-based --though information is now a commodity as “intellectual property.” (With “intellectual” being a strong word for the slurry capital pumps into the population.)
The most important extension of this type of information control currently exists as academia with its early revival of control as the dialectic and didactic by academy founders Socrates and Plato in ancient Athens, and recently by Hegel to fit current capital. Important is that these instructors specifically used sexual abuse to control, which survived to our time as, for instance, the Aboriginal residence schools openly, and covertly elsewhere.
Causality is a rational reduction of the complexity of life saying that “if something happens in relation to something else, that something else caused the first thing.” As a rational reduction, it is a “dumbing-down” of all the highly sophisticade life-system that affect us. Knowledge is naturally structured both in society and in our minds in tree structures, also called “complex data structures” Personally, I have never been “causal” (I believe) because I have been influenced by aboriginal knowledge organization, and also abstract art and music early on as a child with access to all of New York’s museums and libraries (access has since been restricted to children.)
If I something is unavoidably causal, I say “simple math” --this causes that, w/o making a bid deal about it.
Empiricism is the scientific method (and system) built from causality and is considered the only (measurement) science, even by scientist who should know better. It suffers from being highly-fractured, as it is built from independent causal conclusions that also tend to be ego-vehicles from empiricist scientists. Another widely-misused term is “objective” as a synomym for “cruel” such that normal human thinking, such as the recollection of experiences, is excluded from empiricist conclusions; only empiricist numbers are used, often as an output of highly-purposed statistical systems. Dependance on statistics is such that statistics now often produce hypothesis and theory, that is validated by the same statistical systems. Information from other sources such as experience and observation, no matter how detailed, cannot test well against conclusive information produced specifically to test well by statistical systems. This statistical reality is most true for current control of the mind (both human and animal) in cognitive-behavioral strategies of CBT. Interestingly, in CBT, the dialectic method as the socratic method is also key for (as they say) “thought control.”
Objectivism, such as Ayn Rand’s and (current-capital’s) Adam Smith’s objectivism simply “objectify’s” people to make then inanimate numbers rather than feeling people to allow for capital exploitation. As it happens, capital-supporting empiricism, as info-oligarchic, also leverages this, and fills its capital-supportive role by defining and maintaining it as its own from of exploitation, originally sexual abuse.
Sunday, October 14, 2012
Marijuana withdrawal syndrome: There is none
One study shows that craving was a withdrawal symptom, and that it can, under certain circumstances, prevent a user from stopping use (Ehlers, Gizer, Vieten & Wilhelmsen, 2010), which is a criteria for a withdrawal syndrome. Other criteria, such as tolerance and loss of social activities, are only specific to dependence.
Hasin created two groups of symptoms: "anxiety, restlessness, depression, and insomnia" and "weakness, hypersomnia, and psychomotor retardation" (Hasin, et al., 2008, para. 1). Anxiety-related symptoms, which are much more commonly cited as a withdrawal symptom, were associated in Hasin's study with panic and personality disorders. Bonn-Miller and Moos (2010) suggest that anxiety predicts long-term relapse, but does not mediate high relapse rates predicted by previous heavy use, which would probably go to the craving symptom. Therefore this research suggests that the anxiety component of withdrawal is due to another disorder, and therefore may not be contributing to marijuana withdrawal syndrome as specified in the DSM (Copeland & Swift, 2009; Preuss, Watzke, Zimmermann, Wong, Schmidt, 2010). Reuptake-inhibiting anti-depressants had no effect beyond placebo in a study that filtered preexisting psychiatric conditions from the test group, further supporting the idea that the anxiety-related symptoms either describe a separate disorder, or are too clinically insignificant to be affected by a reuptake inhibitor that reduces anxiety (Carpenter, McDowell, Brooks, Cheng, 2009).
This material supports the DSM's present assertion that there is no clinically-significant marijuana withdrawal syndrome.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Bonn-Miller, M., Moos, R., (2011). Marijuana discontinuation, anxiety symptoms, and relapse to marijuana. Addictive Behaviors 34 (pp. 782–785). Retrieved February 21, 2011 from http://dionysus.psych.wisc.edu/Lit/Articles/Bonn-MillerM2009a.pdf
Carpenter, K.M., McDowell, D., Brooks, D., Cheng, W., (2009). A Preliminary Trial: Double-Blind Comparison of Nefazodone, Bupropion-SR and Placebo in the Treatment of Cannabis Dependence. American Journal of Addiction. 18(1). (pp 53-64).
Copeland, J. & Swift, W. (2009). Cannabis use disorder: epidemiology and management. International Review of Psychiatry. 21(2) (pp. 96-103).
Hasin, D., Keyes, K., Alderson, D., Wang, S., Aharonovich, E. & Grant, B. (2008). Cannabis withdrawal in the United States: results from NESARC. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 69(9). (pp. 1354-63).
Preuss, U.W, Watzke, A.B., Zimmermann, J., Wong, J.W., Schmidt, C.O. (2010). Cannabis withdrawal severity and short-term course among cannabis-dependent adolescent and young adult inpatients. Drug and Alcohol Dependency 106(2-3) (pp. 133-41).